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Zeus | Ζεύς/Δίας | Iovis

Post  Achrelus on Tue Mar 19, 2013 10:14 pm

Zeus is the king of the gods and everything else that there is. He wields the thunderbollt and is the god of the sky, storm, and thunder. Everything falls within His power as all gods and men turn to Him. Each god and goddess may have their own domain that they control, but Zeus is king. Discuss the Father of gods and men here.

Erit dies ubi Phoebus redibit et hīc semper manēbit!

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Orphic Perspective: Ζεύς

Post  Erodius on Wed Jul 31, 2013 11:14 pm

11. ZEFS (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς, ΖΕΥΣ) [Roman: Iovis, Jovis, Jupiter, Juppiter; Etruscan: Tinia, Tina, Tin]

Pronounced: zĕfs; the diphthong εύ is pronounced like the ef in left.

Introduction to Zefs

Zefs is supreme in Hellenismos. He is the great Olympian, the king of Gods, the father of Gods and men, the Dimiourgos (Demiurgus or Demiurge; Gr. Δημιουργός) who with the power of Phanis reveals creation, God of hosts/God of guests (see the Glossary for the entry: xenia), and many other things. Queen Ira (Hera; Gr. Ήρα) sits at his side. Because of his position and many glorious qualities, Zefs is one the very most important of all deities in Hellenismos, the ancient Greek religion.

Zefs rules the sky and thunder. His dominion is that of Justice, Order, Fate, and the Law of Life in the divine realm. Apollohn (Gr. Apollon: Ἀπόλλων) speaks the will of Zefs, sits at his right hand, and is his representative on Earth. Mind (Nous; Gr. νοῦς = νόος) is the dominion of Great Zefs.

The Mythology of Zef's Rise to Supremacy

Zefs (Zeus) is the son of Kronos (Cronus; Gr. Κρόνος) and Ræa (Rhea; Gr. Ῥέα). Gaia (Gr. Γαῖα) and Ouranos (Gr. Οὐρανός) warned Kronos that one of his children would overthrow him, so Kronos swallowed each child as they were bore to Ræa. At the advice of her parents, Ræa went to Kriti (Crete; Gr. Κρήτη) to deliver her child Zefs. She wrapped a stone in baby's clothing and fed it to Kronos, deceiving him into thinking it was the newborn baby Zefs. At the end of a year, Zefs grew greatly in strength. Now tricked by the advice of Gaia, Kronos took an emetic and vomited the stone and all of Zefs' siblings. Zefs took the stone and set it at Delphi, where it became known as the Omphalos (Gr. Ὀμφαλός = navel). In the mighty war known as the Titanomakhia (Titanomachy; Gr. Τιτανομαχία), Zefs then defeated his father and ascended to become the king of Gods and men. [1]

Zefs Unites, Zefs Divides

Zefs is he who unites, and he who divides. This was first described by Sohkratis (Socrates; Gr. Σωκράτης) in the Kratylos (Cratylus; Gr. Κρατύλος) of Platohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων):

"But it appears that the name of him who was called his (ed. Tantalos') father, is composed in an all-beautiful manner, though it is by no means easy to be understood: for in reality the name of Jupiter (ed. Zefs) is, as it were, a sentence; but dividing it into two parts, some of us use one part, and some another, for some call him Ζηνα (ed. Zina), and some Δια (ed. Dia). And these parts collected into one, evince the nature of the God; which, as we have said, a name ought to effect: For there is no one who is more the cause of living, both to us and every thing else, than he who is the ruler and king of all things. It happens, therefore, that this God is rightly denominated through whom life is present with all living beings; but the name, though one, is distributed, as I have said, into two parts, viz. into δια and ζηνα." [2]

Therefore Zefs (Zeus) is "he who unites and he who divides," as is explained in Proklos (Proclus; Gr. Πρόκλος):

"For he (ed. the Dimiourgos or Demiurgus; Gr. Δημιουργός = Zefs) divides the soul into parts, harmonizes the divided parts, and renders them concordant with each other. But in effecting these things, he energizes at one and the same time Dionysiacally [i.e. Bacchically] and Apolloniacally. For to divide, and produce wholes into parts, and to preside over the distribution of forms, is Dionysiacal; but to perfect all things harmonically, is Apolloniacal. As the Demiurgus, therefore, comprehends in himself the cause of both these Gods, he both divides and harmonizes the soul." [3]

The concept of uniting and dividing is related to the dual name of the God: Zefs and Dios. Zefs or Ζεύς is etymologically related to zefxis (Gr. ζεῦξις), to yoke [4] . Dios (genitive of Ζεύς; Gr. Διός) is etymologically related to Δί, Δία = Ζεύς [5] ; διά, poet. διαί, through [4] ; διαιρέσιμος, divisible, diairesis, διαίρεσις, divisibility [6] .

The Names Zefs, the word Dios, and the word Dio

There is confusion between the words Dios and Dio, but the confusion is not so great when you see the actual Greek words. Dios is spelled in Greek Διός and is the genitive of Zefs (Ζεύς); it means "of Zefs" and it is the name used to designate the dividing power of the God; the name Zefs is used to designate the uniting power of the God. The name Dio (or as we spell the word on this website Dioh), on the other hand, is spelled in Greek Δηώ and is a name of the Goddess Dimitir. The dælta (Δ) at the beginning of Dimitir in later times became a gamma (Γ), hence Γῆ, and the original meaning of Dimitir is Earth Mother, mitir (Gr. μήτηρ) meaning mother, Γῆ + μήτηρ.

Zefs is the Creator; Zefs is the Dimiourgos (Demiurgus or Demiurge; Gr. Δημιουργός): Zefs utilizes ("swallows," as is said at line 167 of the Rhapsodies) the power of Phanis (Phanes; Gr. Φάνης), the Firstborn (Prohtogonos; Gr. Πρωτογόνος) to reveal the forms which reside in the cave (= antron; Gr. ἄντρον) of Nyx (Gr. Νύξ); by revealing the forms, he creates.

The Three Zefs

Zefs (Zeus), as we speak of him on this page, is Olympian Zeus, for there are three we call Zefs: Olympian Zefs, Zefs of the Sea and the Middle Sky (Poseithon or Poseidon; Gr. Ποσειδῶν), and Zefs of the Earth (Terrestrial Zefs or Ploutohn; Gr. Πλούτων). In the words of Proklos:

"He (ed. Olympian Zeus) is also the summit of the three, has the same name with the fontal Jupiter (ed. Zefs), is united to him, and is monadically called Jupiter (ed. Zefs). But the second is called dyadically, marine Jupiter, and Neptune (ed. Poseidon). And the third is triadically denominated, terrestrial Jupiter, Pluto (ed. Ploutohn), and Hades (ed. Aithis). The first of these also preserves, fabricates, and vivifies summits, but the second, things of a second rank, and the third those of a third order. Hence this last is said to have ravished Proserpine (Pærsæphoni), that together with her he might animate the extremities of the universe." [7]

The Six Kings

Zefs (Zeus) is the personalized, primordial evolution of the non-personal Aithir (Ether; Gr. Αἰθήρ. Aithir, in this context, refers to all these three: Fire, Air, or Water) [8], therefore, his position as supreme is not arbitrary. The mythology surrounding this evolution is symbolic. This progression is represented by the Six Kings (Vasilefs or Basileus, Gr. Βασιλεύς): Phanis, Nyx, Ouranos, Kronos, Zefs, and Dionysos. In a similar manner, Ira (Hera) is the personalized, primordial evolution of Earth [Ge; Gr. Γῆ]. (See Mystic Materialism) This is why the mythology describes Ira and Zefs as brother and sister yet united in marriage. And this also explains why Ira and Zefs, being emanations of the primordial substances, are preeminent in the Orphic cosmogony and why all ritual ends with homage to them.

Zefs in Iconography
In art, Zefs (Zeus) is depicted as regal, mature, powerful, and bearded. He wields the thunderbolt as his scepter or sometimes he will be depicted with a separate scepter. The eagle is often at his side.

Sometimes Zefs is represented by the lion, the bull, or the eagle, the animals which most exemplify power and authority.

Porphyrios (Porphyry; Gr. Πορφύριος) says:
"Zeus, therefore, is the whole world, animal of animals, and God of Gods; but Zeus, that is, inasmuch as he is the mind from which he brings forth all things, and by his thoughts creates them. When the theologians had explained the nature of God in this manner, to make an image such as their description indicated was neither possible, nor, if any one thought of it, could he show the look of life, and intelligence, and forethought by the figure of a sphere.

"But they have made the representation of Zeus in human form, because mind was that according to which he wrought, and by generative laws brought all things to completion; and he is seated, as indicating the steadfastness of his power: and his upper parts are bare, because he is manifested in the intellectual and the heavenly parts of the world; but his feet are clothed, because he is invisible in the things that lie hidden below. And he holds his sceptre in his left hand, because most close to that side of the body dwells the heart, the most commanding and intelligent organ: for the creative mind is the sovereign of the world. And in his right hand he holds forth either an eagle, because he is master of the Gods who traverse the air, as the eagle is master of the birds that fly aloft - or a victory, because he is himself victorious over all things." [9]

Zefs and the Teachings of Orpheus

Father Zefs rules the eleventh Orphic Ikos (House or Oikos; Gr. Οἶκος), the month of Læohn (Leo or Leon; Gr. Λέων) from July 21 through August 20, and his dominion is the Natural Law of Life in the Divine World. The cortex of the Orphic Egg is the symbol of Zefs: Nous-Mind. The Divine Consort of Zefs is his sister, the Goddess Ira (Hera). The Orphic Hymns suggest an offering of storax (use benzoin) to Zefs.

Zefs and Ira (Hera)

According to the mythology, Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) is the king of Gods and the father of Gods and men. Ira (Hera; Gr. Ήρα) is said to be his sister and wife. The meaning of this mythology is that Zefs is the manifestation of the active cosmogonic (from "Cosmos") substance, Water, called variously, from this perspective, Water/Fire/Aithir. Ira is the manifestation of the receptive cosmogonic substance: Earth. These cosmogonic substances are primal, from the beginning, and exist together. Therefore, poetically, they are siblings, i.e. brother and sister. Without the interaction of Earth and Water, Zefs and Ira, there is no creation; therefore, they are, poetically, married.

Proklos explains marriage between Gods thus:

"That Ocean (ed. Okæanos; Gr. Ὠκεανός) is said to have married Tethys (ed. Tithys; Gr. Τηθύς), and Jupiter (ed. Zefs married) Juno (ed. Ira), and the like, as establishing a communion with her, conformably to the generation of subordinate natures. For an according co-arrangement of the Gods, and a connascent (ed. i.e. born together) co-operation in their productions, is called by theologists marriage." [10]

Festivals of Zefs

Thæogamia – (Theogamia; Gr. Θεογαμία) Thæogamia is marriage between Gods, but here we are speaking of the festival which celebrates the marriage of Ira (Hera) and Zefs, i.e., the union of the two cosmogonic substances, Earth and Water. (See Mystic Materialism)

In the Thæogamia, we also celebrate the union of Ærmis (Hermes) and Aphrothiti, (Aphrodite) a pairing which is an exception, not the same as the Divine Consorts but a great symbol of them. Together they represent the union or marriage of each pair. The union of Ærmis and Aphrothiti produces Ærmaphrothitos (Ermaphroditos; Gr. Ἑρμαφρόδιτος), a being with both sexes. Each pair of Olympians is an Ærmaphrothitos but the Great Ærmaphrothitos (Gr. Τω Μεγαλω Έρμαφρώδιτω; transliterated as: Toh Mægaloh Ærmaphrohthitoh) is the marriage of Zefs and Ira, which is the union of the two cosmogonic substances, Earth and Water, or Earth and Sky. This union is celebrated in the Thæogamia.

The date of the Thæogamia is disputed, perhaps 26 or 27 Gamelion (late January, in the month of Aquarius). The month of Gamiliohn (Gamelion; Gr. Γαμηλιών; the "marriage month) was dedicated to Ira.

Great Orphic Hymn to Zefs:
Zefs was the first, Zefs last, the lightning's lord,
Zefs head, Zefs centre, all things are from Zefs.
Zefs born a male, Zefs virgin undefiled;
Zefs the firm base of Earth and starry Heaven;
Zefs sovereign, Zefs alone, the first cause of all:
The One Power divine, great ruler of the world,
The One kingly form, encircling all things here,
Fire, water, earth, and ether, night and day;
Wisdom, first parent, and delightful Love:
For in Zefs' mighty body these all lie.
His head and beauteous face the radiant heaven
Reveals and round him float in shining waves
The golden tresses of the twinkling stars.
On either side bulls' horns of gold are seen,
Sunrise and sunset, footpaths of the Gods.
His eyes the Sun, the Moon's responsive light;
His mind immortal ether, sovereign truth,
Hears and considers all; nor any speech,
Nor cry, nor noise, nor ominous voice escapes
The ear of Zefs, great Kronos' mightier son:
Such his immortal head, and such his thought.
His radiant body, boundless, undisturbed
In strength of mighty limbs was formed thus:
The God's broad-spreading shoulders, breast and back,
Air's wide expanse displays; on either side grow wings,
Wherewith throughout all space he flies.
Earth the all-mother, with her lofty hills, His sacred belly forms;
The swelling flood of hoarse resounding Ocean girds his waist.
His feet the deeply rooted ground upholds,
And dismal Tartaros, and earth's utmost bounds.
All things he hides, then from his heart again
In godlike action brings to gladsome light.

FROM PROKLOS (Proclus; Gr. Πρόκλος): This is an extract from the Manuscript Scolia of Proklos On the Kratylos (Cratylus; Gr. Κρατύλος) of Platohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων): [11]

That Jupiter (ed. Zefs, Zeus) is not said to be, but is the father of those who genuinely preserve the proper form of life, such as Hercules (ed. Iraklis or Herakles; Gr. Ἡρακλῆς) and the Dioscuri (ed. Dioskouri; Gr. Διόσκουροι. The Dioskouri are Castor [Kastohr; Gr. Κάστωρ] and Pollox [Polythefkis; Gr. Πολυδεύκης]); but of those who are never at any time able to convert themselves to a divine nature, he never is, nor is said to be the father. Such therefore as having been partakers of a certain energy above human nature, have again fallen into the sea of dissimilitude, and for honour among men have embraced error towards the Gods, - of these Jupiter is said to be the father.

That the paternal cause originates supernally from intelligible and occult Gods; for there the first fathers of wholes subsist; but it proceeds through all the intellectual Gods into the demiurgic order. For Timæus (ed. Timaios; Gr. Τίμαιος) celebrates this order as at the same time fabricative and paternal; since he calls Jupiter the demiurgus and father. The fathers however who are superior to the one fabrication are called Gods of Gods, but the demiurgus is the father of Gods and men. Farther still, Jupiter is said to be peculiarly the father of some, as of Hercules, who immutably preserve a Jovian and ruling life during their converse with the realms of generation. Jupiter therefore, is triply father, of Gods, partial souls, and of souls that embrace an intellectual and Jovian life. The intellectual order of the Gods therefore, is supernally bounded by the king of the total divine genera, and who has a paternal transcendency with respect to all the intellectual Gods. This king according to Orpheus (Orphefs; Gr. Ὀρφεύς) is called by the blessed immortals that dwell on lofty Olympus Phanes (ed. Phanis; Gr. Φάνης) Protogonus. But this order proceeds through the three Nights, and the celestial orders, into the Titanic or Saturnian series, where it first separates itself from the fathers and changes the kingdom of the Synoches, for a distributive government of wholes, and unfolds every demiurgic genus of the Gods, from all the above-mentioned ruling and royal causes, but proximately from Saturn (ed. Kronos) the leader of the Titanic orders. Prior however to other fabricators (δημιοιργοι; ed. dimi-irgi) it unfolds Jupiter, who is allotted the unical strength of the whole demiurgic series, and who produces and gives subsistence to all unapparent and apparent natures. And he is indeed intellectual according to the order in which he ranks, but he produces the species and genera of beings into the order of sensibles. He is likewise filled with the Gods above himself, but imparts from himself a progression into being to all mundane natures. Hence Orpheus (ed. Orphefs) represents him fabricating every celestial race, making the sun and moon and the other starry Gods, together with the sublunary elements, and diversifying the latter with forms which before had a disordered subsistence. He likewise represents him presiding over the Gods who are distributed about the whole world, and who are suspended from him; and in the character of a legislator assigning distributions of providence in the universe according to desert to all the mundane Gods. Homer (ed. Omiros; Gr. Ὅμηρος) too, following Orpheus (ed. Orphefs), celebrates him as the common father of Gods and men, as leader and king, and as the supreme of rulers. He also says that all the multitude of mundane Gods is collected about him, abides in and is perfected by him. For all the mundane Gods are converted to Jupiter (Zefs = Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) through Themis (ed. Thæmis; Gr. Θέμις),

Ζευς δε Θεμιστα κελευσε Θεους, αγορην δε καλεσσαι
.................. ηδ' αρα παντη
φοιτησασα κελευσε Διος προς δωμα νεεσθαι.

i.e. 'But Jupiter (ed. Zefs) orders Themis (ed. Thæmis) to call the Gods to council; and she directing her course every where commands them to go to the house of Jupiter.'

All of them therefore are excited according to the one will of Jupiter (ed. Zefs), and become διος ενδον (ed. dios ænthon), within Jupiter, as the poet says. Jupiter too again separates them within himself, according to two co-ordinations, and excites them to providential energies about secondary natures; he at the same time as Timæus (ed. Timaios) says, abiding after his accustomed manner:

ως εϕατο κρονιδης πολεμον δ' αλιαστον εγερεν.

i.e. 'this spoke Saturnian Jupiter, and excited inevitable war.'

Jupiter however is separate and exempt from all mundane natures; whence also the most total and leading of the other Gods, though they appear to have in a certain respect equal authority with Jupiter, through a progression from the same causes, yet call him father. For both Neptune and Juno celebrate him by this appellation. And though Juno speaks to him as one who is of the same order,

και γαρ εγω θεος ειμι· γενος δε μοι ενθεν σοι,
και με πρεσβυτατην τεκετο κρονος αγκυλομητις,

i.e. 'For I also am a divinity, and Saturn (ed. Kronos), of inflected counsel, endowed me with the greatest dignity, when he begot me:'

"And though Neptune (ed. Posithohn or Poseidon; Gr. Ποσειδῶν) says

τρεις γαρ τ' εκ κρονου ειμεν αδελϕεοι, ους τεκε Ρειν,
Ζευς και εγω, τριτατος δ' Αιδης ενεροισιν ανασσων,

i.e. 'For we are three brothers from Saturn (ed. Kronos), whom Rhea (ed. Rhæa) bore, Jupiter (ed. Zefs) and I, and the third is Pluto (ed. Ploutohn), who governs the infernal realms:'

Yet Jupiter (ed. Zefs) is called father by both these divinities; and this because he comprehends in himself the one and impartible cause of all fabrication; is prior to Saturnian (ed. Kronian) triad; connectedly contains the three fathers; and comprehends on all sides the vivification of Juno (ed. Ira). Hence, at the same time that this Goddess gives animation to the universe, he also together with other Gods gives subsistence to souls. Very properly therefore do we say that the Demiurgus (Dimiourgos; Gr. Δημιουργός) in the Timæus (ed. Timaios) is the mighty Jupiter (ed. Zefs). For he it is who produces mundane intellects and souls, who adorns all bodies with figures and numbers, and inserts in them one union, and an indissoluble friendship and bond. For Night (ed. Nyx) also in Orpheus (ed. Orphefs) advises Jupiter to employ things of this kind in the fabrication of the universe.

αυταρ επην δεσμον κρατερον περι πασι τανυσσης
i.e. But when your power around the whole has spread
A strong coercive bond.

The proximate bond indeed of mundane natures is that which subsists through analogy; but the more perfect bond is derived from intellect and soul. Hence Timæus (ed. Timaios) calls the communion of the elements through analogy, and the indissoluble union from life, a bond. For he says animals were generated bound with animated bonds. But a more venerable bond than these subsists from the demiurgic will. "For my will," says Jupiter (ed. Zefs) in the Timæus (ed. Timaios), is a greater and more principal bond, etc."

Firmly adhering therefore to this conception respecting the mighty Jupiter (ed. Zefs), viz. that he is the Demiurgus (ed. Dimiourgos) and father of the universe, that he is an all-perfect imparticipable intellect, and that he fills all things both with other goods, and with life, let us survey how from names Socrates (ed. Sohkratis) unfolds the Mystic truth concerning this divinity. Timæus (ed. Timaios) then says that it is difficult to know the essence of the Demiurgus, and Socrates now says that it is not easy to understand his name, which manifests his power and energy.

That our soul knows partibly the impartible nature of the energy of the Gods, and that which is characterised by unity in this energy, in a multiplied manner: and this especially takes place about the demiurgus who expands intellectual forms, and calls forth intelligible causes, and evolves them to the fabrication of the universe. For Parmenides (Parmænithis; Gr. Παρμενίδης) characterises him by sameness and difference. According to Homer two tubs are placed near him; and the most Mystic tradition, and the oracles of the Gods say that the duad is seated with him. For thus they speak: "He possesses both; containing intelligibles in intellect, but introducing sense to the worlds." These oracles likewise call him twice beyond, and twice there (δις επεκεινα και δις εκει). And in short they celebrate him through the duad. For the Demiurgus comprehends in himself unitedly every thing prolific, and which gives subsistence to the mundane natures. Very properly therefore is his name twofold, of which δια manifest the cause through which, and this is paternal goodness; but ζηνα signifies vivification (ed. to animate, to give life to), the first cause of which in the universe the Demiurgus unically comprehends. The former too, is a symbol of the Saturnian and paternal series; but the latter of the vivific and maternal Rhea (ed. Rhæa). So far likewise as Jupiter (ed. Zefs) receives the whole of Saturn (ed. Kronos), he gives subsistence to a triple essence, the impartible, the partible, and that which subsists between these; but according to the Rhea which he contains in himself, he scatters as from a fountain, intellectual, psychical, and corporeal life. But by his demiurgic powers and energies, he gives a formal subsistence to these and separates them from forms of a prior order, and from each other. He is also the ruler and king of all things: and is exempt from the three Demiurgi. For they, as Socrates (ed. Sohkratis) says in the Gorgias, divide the kingdom of their father; but Jupiter (ed. Zefs) the Demiurgus (ed. Dimiourgos) at once, without division reigns over the three, and unically governs them.

He is therefore the cause of the paternal triad, and of all fabrication; but he connectedly contains the three demiurgi. And he is a king indeed, as being co-ordinated with the fathers; but a ruler, as being proximately established above the demiurgic triad, and comprehending the uniform cause of it. Plato (ed. Platohn) therefore by considering his name in two ways evinces that images receive partibly the unical causes of paradigms, and that this is adapted to him who establishes the intellectual duad in himself. For he gives subsistence to twofold orders, the celestial, and the supercelestial; whence also the theologist Orpheus (ed. Orphefs) says, that his sceptre consists of four and twenty measures; as ruling over a twofold twelve.

That the soul of the world gives life to alter-motive natures; for to these it becomes the fountain and principle of motion, as Plato says in the Phædrus and Laws. But the Demiurgus simply imparts to all things life divine, intellectual, psychical, and that which is divisible about bodies. No one however should think that the Gods in their generations of secondary natures are diminished; or that they sustain a division of their proper essence in giving subsistence to things subordinate; or that they expose their progeny to the view, externally to themselves, in the same manner as the causes of mortal offspring. Nor in short, must we suppose that they generate with motion or mutation, but that abiding in themselves, they produce by their very essence posterior natures, comprehend on all sides their progeny, and supernally perfect the productions and energies of their offspring. Nor again when it is said that Gods are the sons of more total Gods, must it be supposed that they are disjoined from more ancient causes, and are cut off from a union with them; or that they receive the peculiarity of the hyparxis through motion, and an indefiniteness converting itself to bound. For there is nothing irrational and without measure, in the natures superior to us. But we must conceive that their progressions are effected through similitude; and that there is one communion of essence, and an indivisible continuity of powers and energies, between the sons of Gods and their fathers; all those Gods that rank in the second order, being established in such as are more ancient; and the more ancient imparting much of perfection, vigour, and efficacious production to the subordinate. And after this manner we must understand that Jupiter is said to be the son of Saturn. For Jupiter being the demiurgic intellect proceeds from another intellect, superior and more uniform, which increases indeed its proper intellections, but converts the multitude of them to union; and multiplies its intellectual powers, but elevates their all-various evolutions to impartible sameness. Jupiter therefore proximately establishing a communion with this divinity, and being filled from him with total intellectual good, is very properly said to be the son of Saturn, both in hymns and in invocations, as unfolding into light that which is occult, expanding that which is contracted, and dividing that which is impartible in the Saturnian monad; and as emitting a second more partial kingdom, instead of that which is more total, a demiurgic instead of a paternal dominion, and an empire which proceeds every where instead of that which stably abides in itself.


[1] Isiothos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος, ἩΣΊΟΔΟΣ) Theogonia 453-491.

[2] Plato Kratylos 395e-396b, trans. Thomas Taylor, 1804; TTS XIII pp. 475-476. And below is Taylor's note concerning this line of the text (found Ibid. Taylor pp. 527-528):

"It is evident from hence, that Jupiter (ed. Zefs), according to Plato, is the demiurgus, or artificer of the universe; for no one can be more the cause of living to all things, than he by whom the world was produced. But if this be the case, the artificer of the world is not, as we have before observed according to the Platonic theology, the first cause: for there are other Gods superior to Jupiter, whose names Plato, as we shall shortly see, etymologizes agreeably to the Orphic theology. Indeed, his etymology of Jupiter is evidently derived from the following Orphic verses, which are cited by Joannes Diac. Allegor. ad Hesiodi Theog. p. 278.

Εστιν δη παντων αρχη Ζευς. Ζευς γαρ εδωκε,
Ζωα τ' εγεννισεν· και Ζην αυτον καλεουσι,
Και Δια τ' ηδ, οτι δη δια τουτον απαντα τετυκται.
Εις δε πατηρ ουτος παντων, θηρων τε βροτων τε.

i.e. 'Jupiter is the principle of all things. For Jupiter is the cause of the generation of animals: and they call him Ζην (ed. Zin), and Δια (ed. Dia) also, because all things were fabricated through him; and he is the one father of all things, of beasts and men.' Here too you may observe that he is called fabricator and father, which are the very epithets given to the demiurgus of the world by Plato in the Timæus. In short, Jupiter, the artificer of the world, subsists at the extremity of that order of Gods which is called νοερος (ed. noæros), intellectual, as is copiously and beautifully proved by Proclus, in Plat. Theol. lib. v. [TTS Vol. VIII] And he is likewise celebrated by the Chaldaic theology, as we are informed by Damascius (Damaskios; Gr. Δαμάσκιος) and Psellus (ed. Psællos; Gr. Ψελλός) under two names, δις επεκεινα (ed. dis æpækeina), twice beyond.

[3] Proklos' Commentary on the Timaios of Platohn, Diehl pagination: 200C, 2,197; trans. Thomas Taylor in Vol. II of the same name, 1820; found here in the 2006 Prometheus Trust edition (Dorset UK) on p. 616, TTS XVI.

Damaskios of Rhodes, in his commentary on Phaedo 3, states: "Creation being twofold, either indivisible or divided, the latter, according to the commentator, is ruled by Dionysus, and therefore divided." (Damaskios Commentary on Phaedo.3; trans. L.G. Westerink from The Greek Commentaries on Plato's Phaedo, Vol. II, Damascius, Amsterdam, Oxford, and New York: North-Holland Publishing Co., 1977. This excerpt from Westerink was found in The Golden Chain: An Anthology of Pythagorean and Platonic Philosophy, Selected and edited by Algis Uždavinys, 2004, World Wisdom, Bloomington IN USA, p.274.)

[4] L&S p.754, right column.

[5] L&S p.388, right column.

[6] L&S p.395, left column.

[7] Extract from the Manuscript Scolia of Proklos On the Kratylos of Plato, found in The Theology of Plato/Proclus, trans. Thomas Taylor, Prometheus Trust (Somerset UK), Vol. VIII of The Thomas Taylor Series, p. 683.

The Three Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς, ΖΕΎΣ) are Ploutohn (Pluto or Hades; Gr. Πλούτων, ΠΛΟΎΤΩΝ), Poseithohn (Poseidon or Neptune; Gr. Ποσειδῶν, ΠΟΣΕΙΔΩΝ), and Zefs (or Jupiter). They can be understood from the perspective of the Orphic Egg. Plouthohn is the center (the yolk); Poseithohn is the middle (the liquid, or white of the egg); Zefs is the cortex, (the shell or outer layer: Nous, mind). They are also known as Zefs of the Earth (Ploutohn or Zefs Khthonios [Terrestrial]), Zefs of the Sea (Poseithohn), and Zefs of the Sky (Olympian Zefs):

"...but they themselves cast lots for the sovereignty, and to Zeus was allotted the dominion of the sky, to Poseidon the dominion of the sea, and to Pluto the dominion in Hades." (Apollothohros Bibliothiki I:2, trans. J.G. Frazer in Apollodorus: The Library I, Loeb LCL 121, Harvard Univ. Press [Cambridge MA & London England] 1921; we are using the 1990 edition, p. 11.)

Also compare this passage from Kallimakhos:

"Fairly didst thou wax, O heavenly Zeus, and fairly wert thou nurtured, and swiftly thou didst grow to manhood, and speedily came the down upon thy cheek. But, while yet a child, thou didst devise all the deeds of perfect stature. Wherefore thy kindred, though an earlier generation, grudged not that thou shouldst have heaven for thine appointed habitation. The ancient poets spake not altogether truly. For they said that the lot assigned to the sons of Cronus their three several abodes. But who would draw lots for Olympus and for Hades – save a very fool? for equal chances should one cast lots; but these are the wide world apart. When I speak fiction, be it such fiction as persuades the listener’s ear! Thou wert made sovereign of the Gods not by casting of lots but by the deeds of thy hands, thy might and that strength which thou hast set beside thy throne." (Kallimakhos' Hymn to Zeus 54-66, trans. A.W. Mair and G.R. Mair, 1921 in Callimachus Hymns and Epigrams; We are using the 1989 Harvard Univ. Press edition [Cambridge MA and London England], Loeb LCL 129, p. 43)

[8] “Zeus is Aithir (ed. Aether; Gr. Αἰθήρ, ΑἸΘΉΡ), Zeus is earth, Zeus is heaven: Zeus, in truth, is all things and more than all.” (Aeschylus fr. 70)

"Maiden, 'twas Aithir gave thee birth, Who is named Zeus by sons of earth." (Euripides fr. 877)

"O ever untamed Æther, raised on high, in Zeus’ dominions, ruler of the sky" (Orphic Hymn To Aither translated by Thomas Taylor)

"Very well! I swear it by the Æther, the dwelling-place of the king of the Gods.." (Aristophanes, Thesmophriazusae 273; translated by Eugene O'Neill, Jr.)

The Rhapsodic Theogony describes the evolution of Zeus from Aithir.

[9] Porphyry On Images, Fragment 3, excerpt, translated by Edwin Hamilton Gifford.

[10] from the Manuscript Scolia of Proclus On the Kratylos of Plato, found in The Theology of Plato/Proclus, trans. Thomas Taylor, Prometheus Trust (Somerset UK), Vol. VIII of The Thomas Taylor Series, p. 682. See also the section entitled DIMITIR AND RHÆA on this page: Proklos On the Kratylos of Platohn.

[11] from the Manuscript Scolia of Proclus On the Kratylos of Plato, found in The Theology of Plato/Proclus, trans. Thomas Taylor, Prometheus Trust (Somerset UK), Vol. VIII of The Thomas Taylor Series, pp. 667-672.

[12] Kallimakhos (Callimachus; Gr. Καλλίμαχος, ΚΑΛΛΊΜΑΧΟΣ) of Alexandria I.-To Zeus, 90-95; trans. A.W. Mair, 1921; found here in the 1989 Harvard Univ. Press edition (Cambridge MA & London England), Loeb LCL 129, pp. 45-47.
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"O Best of Gods, blest daimon crown'd with fire . . . hear, and from punishment my soul absolve, the punishment incurr'd by pristine guilt, thro' Lethe's darkness and terrene desire: and if for long-extended years I'm doom'd in these drear realms Heav'n's exile to remain, O grant me soon the necessary means to gain that good which solitude confers on souls emerging from the bitter waves of fraudful Hyle's black, impetuous flood!"
-Iulianic Hymn to Apollon-Helios, ll. 65-106

"Having come for punishment, one must be punished. One must not pull apart the god within oneself."
-Iamblichus, Vita Pythagorica

"Truth would you teach, or save a sinking land,
All hear, none aid you, and few understand."
-Alexander Pope


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Re: Zeus | Ζεύς/Δίας | Iovis

Post  Vadzhij on Tue Mar 17, 2015 8:22 pm

The Stoics also had a high regard for the king of the gods. Seneca had this to say about Zeus:
"The Ancients did not believe that the Jupiter [=Zeus] we adore on the Capitol and in the other temples sent bolts of lightning with his own hand". On the contrary: by "Jupiter" they meant the soul and mind of the world.

All names are appropriate to him.
Do you want to call him Destiny?
You won't be wrong, for it is from
him that all things are suspended;
he is the cause of causes.
Do you want to call him Providence?
You will speak rightly, for it is
by his counsel that the needs of
the world are provided for, in order
that it may reach its appointed term
without impediment, and that it may
unfold all its movements.
Nature? You will not be in error,
for it is from him that all things
are born, and thanks to whose breath
we live.
The World? You will not be wrong,
for he is all that you see; he is
present in all of its parts and he
conserves both himself and its parts.
Lightning-bolts are not hurled by
Jupiter, but all things have been
so disposed that even those things
which are not done by him do not
happen without that Reason which
belongs to Jupiter ... For even if
Jupiter does not now do these things
himself, yet he has caused these
things to happen.

(The Inner Citadel: The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius p.158, Pierre Hadot)


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