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Artemis | Ἀρτεμις | Diana

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Artemis | Ἀρτεμις | Diana

Post  Achrelus on Wed Mar 20, 2013 2:02 pm

Artemis is the virgin goddess of the hunt. She is a nature goddess, patroness of animals, and is also the moon goddess. Like her twin brother Apollo, she is an archer. For all of you hunters out there, here is where to discuss the Huntress.
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Orphic Perspective: Ἄρτεμις

Post  Erodius on Wed Jul 31, 2013 10:43 pm

3. Artæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις, ΑΡΤΕΜΙΣ) [Roman: Diana. Etruscan: Aritimi and Artumes]
Pronunciation: AHR'-tæ-mees

One of the most important deities of Hellenismos and one of the Twelve Olympian Gods, Artæmis is the twin sister of Apollohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων) and the daughter of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) and the Titan Goddess Litoh (Leto; Gr. Λητώ). Artæmis is a virgin Goddess, like Athina (Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ) and Æstia (Hestia; Gr. Ἑστία), but this virginity is a type of purity having nothing to do with mortal sex. She protects children, young girls before they marry, wild-life, and assists in childbirth. She has dominion over the moon. Artæmis is the huntress who pursues game with her dog, the Agathos Daimohn (Agathos Daemon; Gr. Ἀγαθὸς Δαίμων), or rather her many dogs; the game she pursues are beautiful souls in need of progression. For Artæmis, like her brother, possesses the bow and arrow; the arrow she dispatches is a mighty fire that pushes the soul forward to great aræti (arete; Gr. ἀρετή), the highest virtue.

Artæmis, like her twin brother Apollohn, is the natural evolution of Litoh, her mother. Apollohn and Artæmis are both emanations of Litoh-souls with twin characteristics.

Iconography:
In iconography, Artæmis is usually depicted as youthful, with a deer or a dog by her side. She carries a bow and a quiver of arrows, often pulling one out. She is commonly presented with Apollohn (and Litoh) by her side. Artæmis of Æphæsos (Ephesus; Gr. Ἔφεσος) wears a gown, covered with Orphic eggs and animals, that extends to her ankles, and bears a crown on her head. Artæmis hunts the beautiful souls, the eggs, which she gathers close to her heart.

Orphic Hymn
Hear me, Jove's daughter, celebrated queen,
Bacchian and Titan, of a noble mien:
In darts rejoicing and on all to shine,
Torch-bearing Goddess, Dictynna divine;
O'er births presiding, and thyself a maid,
To labour-pangs imparting ready aid:
Dissolver of the zone and wrinkl'd care,
Fierce huntress, glorying in the Sylvan war:
Swift in the course, in dreadful arrows skill'd,
Wandering by night, rejoicing in the field:
Of manly form, erect, of bounteous mind,
Illustrious dæmon, nurse of human kind:
Immortal, earthly, bane of monsters fell,
'Tis thine, blest maid, on woody hills to dwell:
Foe of the stag, whom woods and dogs delight,
In endless youth who flourish fair and bright.
O, universal queen, august, divine,
A various form, Cydonian pow'r, is thine:
Dread guardian Goddess, with benignant mind
Auspicious, come to Mystic rites inclin'd;
Give earth a store of beauteous fruits to bear,
Send gentle Peace, and Health with lovely hair,
And to the mountains drive Disease and Care.


In the Orphic hymn to Artæmis, she is called Diktynna (Dictynna; Gr. Δίκτυννα = Vritomartis or Britomartis; Gr. Βριτόμαρτις). Later in the poem she is called "Cydonian" (Taylor). The ancient city of Kydonia (Cydonia; Gr. Κυδωνία) was a center of cult worship of Artæmis Diktynna. Diktynna, also called Dicte, is an epithet of the Cretan (Minoan) Goddess Vritomartis (Gr. Βριτόμαρτις); she is a nymph and an attendant of Queen Artæmis. For this reason, Artæmis is often called Diktynna and sometimes Diktynna is thought of as Artæmis herself.

Artæmis rules the third Orphic House, the month of Sagittarius (Toxotis; Gr. Τοξότης) from November 21 to December 20, and her dominion is the Natural Law of Energy. The Divine Consort of the Goddess Artæmis is her twin brother Apollohn. The Orphic Hymns indicate the offering of manna to Artæmis.

Epithets of Artæmis

Æmpylios - (Empylios; Gr. Ἐμπύλιος, ΕΜΠΥΛΙΟΣ) at the gate, epith. of Artemis Hecate, Orphic Argonaftika 902: Boeot. ἐμπύληος ( = -λαιος), epith. of Poseidon at Thebes, IG 7.2465 (iv/iii B. C.). (L&S p. 549, left column)

Acrea - See Akræa.

Akraios - See Akræa.

Akræa - (Acrea; (Gr. Ἄκρεα, ΑΚΡΕΑ) Akræa means girl.
- Lexicon entry: v. ἀκραῖος. II ἀκρέα, ἡ, girl (Maced.). Hsch. (L&S p. 55, left column)
- from a mountain of that name, near Argos (Gr. Ἄργος, ἌΡΓΟΣ) (CM p. 160; CM may mean Akraios [Gr. Ἀκραῖος, ἈΚΡΑΙΟΣ]: dwelling on heights, an epithet of deities who had temples on a promontory)

Acraeus (L) = Akraios (Gr.). See Akræa.

Aritimi - Aritimi is an Etruscan name for Artæmis.

Arsænomorphæ - (Arsenomorphe; Gr. Ἀρσενόμορφε, ΑΡΣΕΝΟΜΟΡΦΕ) Arsænomorphæ means the appearance with a male face, as, for instance, with the Goddess Artæmis. (Orphefs Hymn 36 To Artæmis, line 7)

Artumes - Artumes is an Etruscan name for Artæmis.

Diktynna - (Dictynna; Gr. Δίκτυννα, ΔΙΤΥΝΝΑ) Δίκτυννα, ἡ, (δίκτυον) epith. of Artemis as Goddess of the chase, Hdt.3.59, E.Hipp.145 (lyr.), etc.:—hence Δικτυνναῖος, ὁ (sc. μήν), name of month in Crete, GDI5173. (L&S)

Efkleia - (Eucleia; Gr. Εὐκλεία, ΕΥΚΛΕΙΑ) Efkleia is the Goddess of Glory, in particular, the personification of the victory of the Battle of Marathon. Plutarch remarks (Life of Aristides 20) that Efkleia was a surname of Artæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις) while stating that other sources describe her as the daughter of Irakles (Heracles or Hercules; Gr. Ἡρακλῆς, ἩΡΑΚΛΗΣ) and Myrtoh (Myrto; Gr. Μυρτώ). The name also denotes human excellence and the good reputation which accompanies it, as implied in a fragment of Vakkhylithis (Bacchylides; Gr. Βακχυλίδης) [Frag. 13 as numbered in the trans. of Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV].

Kourotrophos - (Gr. Κουροτρόφος, ΚΟΥΡΟΤΡΟΦΟΣ) Kourotrophos is an epithet of Ækati (Hecate), Artæmis (Artemis), and Aphrothiti (Aphrodite), meaning nurturer of children.
- κουροτρόφος, ον, rearing children, rare in lit. sense, γυνὴ νεοτόκος καὶ κ. Aret. CA2.3: usu. metaph., ἀγαθὴ κ. good nursing-mother, of Ithaca, Od. 9.27, cf.Pi.Fr.109; κ. Ἑλλάς E.Tr.566 (lyr., s.v.l.); Ἀπόλλωνος κ., of Delos, Call.Del.2, 276: freq. as epith. of Goddesses, as Hecate, Hesiod Theogonia 450; Ἄρτεμις D.S.5.73; Λοχία Supp.Epigr.3.400.9 (Delph., iii B. C.); of the Roman Goddess Rumina, Plu.2.278d; esp. of Aphrodite, Hom.Epigr.12; called ἡ K. alone,IG12.840.9, Ar.Th.299, Pl. Com.174.7, Luc.DMeretr.5.1; αἱ πύλαι αἱ κατὰ Κουροτρόφον, at Delos, IG11(2).203A46 (iii B. C.):—in form Κουροτρόπος, ὁ(sc. μήν), name of Acarnanian month, ib.5(1).29.11 (Sparta). (L&S p. 987, left column, within the entries beginning with κουρο-σύνη)
- Orphic Hymn 1, Ækati, line 8.

Kyniyætis - (Kynigetis; Gr. Κυνηγέτης, ΚΥΝΗΓΕΤΗΣ) Kyniyætis is Artæmis, the huntress, the leader of the dogs.
- κῠνηγέτης, ου, ὁ, Dor. huntsman; in pl. of certain δαίμονες, huntress; epith. of Artemis. (abbreviated from L&S)

Nyktipolos - (Gr. Νυκτιπόλος, ΝΥΚΤΙΠΟΛΟΣ) roaming, by night, Βάκχαι E.Ion718 (lyr.) ; ἔφοδοι, of Persephone, ib.1049 (lyr.) ; epith. of Zagreus, Id.Fr.472.11 (anap.) ; of Artemis, Corn.ND 34: as Subst., coupled with Μάγοι, Βάκχοι, Λῆναι, Heraclit.14. (L&S p. 1184, left column, top of the page, within the entries beginning from the previous page, starting with νυκτῐ-πᾰταιπλάγιος) It should be understood that night in ancient Greek mythology is one of the great keys; night refers to an area of which is unknown and difficult to be understood by ordinary mortals. Night, as a key, does not mean actual darkness, since all the Gods are beings of great enlightenment.

Skylakitis - (Gr. Σκυλακῖτις, ΣΚΥΛΑΚΙΤΙΣ. From σκύλαξ, dog or whelp) Skylakitis is Artæmis, protectress of dogs. (Orphic Hymn 36 Artæmis, line 12) Artæmis hunts the beautiful souls using her dogs, the Agathos Daimon (Gr. Ἀγαθὸς Δαίμων), and to shoot the souls with her arrows which propels them forward, giving them the energy they need to succeed. Ækati (Hecate; Gr. Ἑκάτη) is also a Skylakitis, but in a different way; Ækati uses the Agathos Daimon to deliver our prayers to the Olympian Gods.
Hymn to Artæmis


Artæmis from Proklos: [1]
With respect to our sovereign mistress Diana [2] (ed. Artæmis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις), Plato (ed. Platohn; Gr. Πλάτων) delivers three peculiarities of her, the undefiled, the mundane, and the anagogic. And through the first of these indeed, the Goddess is said to be a lover of virginity; but through the second, according to which she is perfective of works (τελεσιουργος; ed. tælæsiourgos) she is said to be the inspective guardian of virtue; and through the third she is said to hate the impulses arising from generation. Of these three likewise, the first is especially adapted to the progression of the Goddess, according to which she is allotted an hyparxis in the vivific triad of the supermundane Gods; whether we call this deity Hecatic, as Theurgists say, or Diana (ed. Artæmis) with Orpheus (ed. Orphefs; Gr. Ὀρφεύς). For there being established, she is filled with undefiled powers from the Gods called Amilicti. But she looks to the fountain of virtue, and embraces its virginity. For the virginity which is there does not proceed forth, as the Oracle says, but abiding gives subsistence to Diana (ed. Artæmis), and to supermundane virtue, and is exempt from all communion, in conjunction and progression, according to generation. Hence Core (ed. Kori; Gr. Κορη) also, according to the Diana (ed. Artæmis) and Minerva (ed. Athina = Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ) which she contains, is said to remain a virgin; but according to the prolific power of Proserpine (ed. Pærsæphoni; Gr. Περσεφόνη), she is said to proceed forth, and to be conjoined with the third demiurgus, and to bring forth as Orpheus (ed. Orphefs) says, "nine azure-eyed, flower-producing daughters;"

εννεα θυγατερας γλαυκωπιδας ανθεσιουγους.

since the Diana (ed. Artæmis) and the Minerva (ed. Athina) which she contains preserve their virginity always the same. For the former of these is characterised according to her stability, but the latter according to her convertive energy. But that which is generative is allotted in her a middle order. They say too, that she aspires after virginity, since the form of her is comprehended in the vivific fountain, and she understands fontal virtue, gives subsistence to supermundane and anagogic virtue, and despises all material sexual connexion, though she inspects the fruits arising from it.

She appears also to be averse to the generations and progressions of things, but to introduce perfections to them. And she gives perfection indeed to souls through a life according to virtue; but to mortal animals she imparts a restitution to form. But that there is a great union between Diana (ed. Artæmis), the mundane Hecate (Ækati; Gr. Ἑκάτη), and Core (ed. Kori), is evident to those that are in the least degree conversant with the writings of Orpheus (ed. Orphefs); from which it appears that Latona (ed. Litoh = Leto: Gr. Λητώ) is comprehended in Ceres (ed. Dimitir = Demeter; Gr. Δημήτηρ), and together with Jupiter (ed. Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) gives subsistence to Core (ed. Kori) and the mundane Hecate (ed. Ækati). To which we may also add that Orpheus (ed. Orphefs) [45] calls Diana Hecate. So that it is nothing wonderful, if we should elsewhere call the Diana contained in Core Hecate.


––––––
NOTES:

[1] Extract from the Manuscript Scolia of Proclus On the Cratylus of Plato, found in The Theology of Plato: Proclus, trans. Thomas Taylor, Prometheus Trust (Somerset, UK) Vol. VIII of The Thomas Taylor Series, p. 691-692.

[2] Thomas Taylor, who lived from 1758 to 1835, wrote according to the scholastic convention of his time: he used the Latin names for the deities rather than the Greek.
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"O Best of Gods, blest daimon crown'd with fire . . . hear, and from punishment my soul absolve, the punishment incurr'd by pristine guilt, thro' Lethe's darkness and terrene desire: and if for long-extended years I'm doom'd in these drear realms Heav'n's exile to remain, O grant me soon the necessary means to gain that good which solitude confers on souls emerging from the bitter waves of fraudful Hyle's black, impetuous flood!"
-Iulianic Hymn to Apollon-Helios, ll. 65-106

"Having come for punishment, one must be punished. One must not pull apart the god within oneself."
-Iamblichus, Vita Pythagorica

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All hear, none aid you, and few understand."
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