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Apollo | Ἀπόλλων

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Apollo | Ἀπόλλων

Post  Achrelus on Tue Mar 19, 2013 10:45 pm

Apollo is a god of many things. He is the god of light, prophecy, poetry, and the arts. Apollo is famous for his oracle at Delphi, the Pythia. To her he gave divine ispiration and prophecy, and through her spoke to man. He is driver of the sun, and the musician of the gods.

Erit dies ubi Phoebus redibit et hīc semper manēbit!

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Orphic Perspective: Ἀπόλλων

Post  Erodius on Wed Jul 31, 2013 10:31 pm

APOLLON - (Gr. Ἀπόλλων, ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ) [Roman: Apollo. Etruscan: Apulu or Aplu]
Apollohn is one of the most important deities in the religious tradition we call Hellenismos. One of the Twelve Olympian Gods, Apollohn is the son of Litoh (Leto; Gr. Λητώ) and the twin brother of Artæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις).

The Birth of Apollohn

The beautiful Homeric hymn to Dilion (Delian; Gr. Δήλιον) Apollohn describes the birth of the God, the outline of which is as follows. The island of Dilos (Delos; Gr. Δήλος), by some accounts, was lifted from the bottom of the sea by Poseithohn (Poseidon; Gr. Ποσειδῶν) out of pity for Litoh who was unable to find a place to give birth to her children. Litoh was denied refuge wherever she went: all were in fear of jealous Ira (Hera; Gr. Ἥρα). Ira was angry because Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς), her husband, had consorted with Litoh and was the father of soon-to-be-born Apollohn and Artæmis. Despite the fear of retribution, brave Dilos welcomed Litoh. But Litoh's trial was not yet over; Ira detained Eileithyia (Gr. Εἰλείθυια), the Goddess of childbirth, at Olympos (Olympus; Gr. Ὄλυμπος). The other Goddesses distracted Ira with the gift of a beautiful amber necklace. Now, with the assistance of Eileithyia, and holding onto a palm, Lito gave birth to handsome Apollohn.

Generalities Concerning Apollohn

It is said that Apollohn speaks the unfailing will of his father, Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς), at whose right hand he sits. Apollohn is Zefs' representative on Earth. He is the ambassador of the Solar Powers, the higher Olympian Gods and, as such, he is at the same level as Zefs of this, our system, and thus merits the title: Anax, the Great King. Apollohn is Symparæthros (Gr. Συμπαρεδρος) to Zefs of our system, meaning that they hold the throne jointly. [1] The Solar Powers are represented by the two intertwined snakes of the Kirykeion (= Caduceus; Gr. Κηρύκειον) which Apollohn gives to Ærmis (Hermes; Gr. Ἑρμῆς). Apollohn is called the Orthos Logos (Gr. Ὀρθός Λόγος), the True Word and Apollohn does not lie:

"For he (ed. the Dælphic Oracle, i.e. Apollohn) does not lie, since this is not lawful to him." [2]

The Dominions of Apollohn

Apollohn rules over the realms of archery, poetry, all the fine arts, Reason, and prophecy. Apollohn is the God of Light and has dominion over the Sun itself (yet Ilios [Helios; Gr. Ἥλιος] the Sun is not the same God as Apollohn, as some people erroneously think). He rules the Natural Law of Freedom. Apollohn, like his sister Artæmis, possesses the bow and arrow; this arrow is a mighty fire that pushes the soul forward to great progress and aræti (arete; Gr. ἀρετή).

Apollohn Presides Over the Art of Music

Apollohn plays the kithara (cithara = lyre; Gr. κιθάρα), an instrument which he acquired from his brother Ærmis, who, in the Homeric hymn to Ærmis, created the instrument from the shell of a turtle and gave it to his brother in exchange for his stolen cattle. The kithara of Apollohn has seven strings, a number associated with the God, and represents the Seven Centers of the Soul, similar to the chakras of the Hindus. Therefore, with his beautiful music, Apollohn propels the soul to progress and deification.

Apollohn is the Guardian of the Mysteries

Apollohn is the principal guardian of the Mysteries. This can be seen in Ilias (The Iliad; Gr. Ἰλιάς) where Ælæni (Helen of Troy; Gr. Ἑλένη), meaning The Basket, is the symbol of the Mysteries. And when Apollohn kills, in Ilias and wherever found in the myths, he deifies: always, as does his father Zefs (Zeus) and all the Gods.

Apollohn Rules Medicine

Apollohn is the principle deity of Medicine and Healing. Kheirohn (Chiron; Gr. Χείρων) the centaur taught medicine to Asklipios (Asclepius; Gr. Ἀσκληπιός ), the son of Apollohn and the most renowned Physician after him. Asklipios, in turn, taught his own sons and daughters medicine, a whole host of divine healers. Apollohn is mentioned first in the Hippocratic Oath: "I swear by Apollo the physician, and Aesculapius (ed. Asklipios), and Health (ed. Hygeia; Gr. Ὑγεία), and All-heal (ed. Panakeia; Gr. Πανάκεια), and all the Gods and Goddesses, that, according to my ability and judgment, I will keep this Oath..." (translated by Francis Adams).

Apollohn and Death

It is said that the Gods avoid death for whom it is a pollution. This is the tradition. For example, it is not appropriate to bury a dead body within the walls of a temple. The actual pollution is the corpse itself. This is the tradition of respect for the Gods, but this convention is somewhat misunderstood. In reality, the Gods cannot be polluted, despite the fact that the literature presents them as removing themselves directly before death. Apollohn, however, is shown in the opening section of the Alkistis [Alcestes; Gr. Ἄλκηστις] of Evripithis [Euripides; Gr. Εὐριπίδης]) bargaining with Death to extend the life of his mortal friend Admitos (Admetus; Gr. Ἄδμητος). While the play is, after all, a play, it nonetheless reflects on the character of the God who not only must deal with mortal death because of his role as the principal deity of medicine, but also reveals his willingness to become intimately involved in the affairs of man and individuals. This involvement is also demonstrated in the Oræsteia (Oresteia; Gr. Ὀρέστεια) of Aiskhylos (Aeschylus; Gr. Αἰσχύλος) in which he stands fiercely loyal to Oræstis (Orestes; Gr Ὀρέστης) and struggles for mankind along with Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) and Athina (Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ) resulting in a great progress for mankind in the trial of Oræstis.

The Seat of Apollohn on Earth is Dælphi

The principle seat of Apollohn was his temple at Dælphi (Delphi; Gr. Δελφοί), which was the most famous oracle of the ancient world. The words of the oracle were viewed as the voice of Apollohn himself. It was at Dælphi that Apollohn slew the Pythohn (Python; Gr. Πύθων). In one version of the story, the Pythohn tormented his mother Litoh (Leto; Gr. Λητώ) at the behest of the Goddess Ira (Hera; Gr. Ἥρα). According to this myth, because the Pythohn was sacred to Gaia, Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) exiled Apollohn to become a shepherd for nine years in the service of Admitos (Admetus; Gr. Ἄδμητος), King of Thæssalia (Thessaly; Gr. Θεσσαλία). (There is another myth which attributes this "punishment" to Apollohn's killing of the Kyklohps (Cyclops; Gr. Κύκλωψ), who forged the weapon that killed Apollohn's son, Asklipios.) Apollohn also had oracular shrines at Dilos (Delos; Gr. Δήλος), Klaros (Claros; Gr. Κλάρος), Tænæthos (Tenedos; Gr. Τένεδος), Cyrrha, Didyme, and Patara.

Τhat Zefs is the source of all prophecy and Apollohn is his voice

Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) is the source of all prophecy:

"Beside the beautiful altar of Zeus he let fall the fawn where the Achaeans were used to offer sacrifice to Zeus from whom all omens come." [3]

It is said that oracle was first spoken by Gi (Ge = Earth; Gr. Γῆ) and handed down to Thæmis (Themis; Gr. Θέμις) and eventually became the possession of Apollohn who holds this power eternally:

The Pythia speaks: "I give first place of honor in my prayer to her
who of the Gods first prophesied, the Earth; and next
to Themis, who succeeded to her mother's place
of prophecy; so runs the legend; and in third
succession, given by free consent, not won by force,
another Titan daughter of Earth was seated here.
This was Phoebe. She gave it as birthday gift
to Phoebus, who is called still after Pheobe's name.
And he, leaving the pond of Delos and the reef,
grounded his ship at the roadstead of Pallas, then
made his way to this land and a Parnassian home.
Deep in respect for his degree Hephaestus' sons
conveyed him here, for these are builders of roads, and changed
the wilderness to a land that was no wilderness.
He came so, and the people highly honored him,
with Delphus, lord and helmsman of the country. Zeus
made his mind full with Godship and prophetic craft
and placed him, fourth in a line of seers, upon this throne.
So, Loxias is the spokesman of his father, Zeus." [4]

Loxias (Gr. Λοξίας) an epithet of Apollohn meaning "he who is the prophet and interpreter of Zefs."

Apollohn states that it is forbidden to practice soothsaying, even for the Gods, in the Homeric Hymn to Ærmis (Hermes; Gr. Ἑρμῆς):

"...μαντείην δέ, φέριστε, διοτρεφές, ἣν ἐρεείνεις, οὔτε σὲ θέσφατόν ἐστι δαήμεναι οὔτε τιν' ἄλλον ἀθανάτων· τὸ γὰρ οἶδε Διὸς νόος·"

"But as for sooth-saying, noble, heaven-born child, of which you ask, it is not lawful for you to learn it, nor for any other of the deathless Gods: only the mind of Zeus knows that." [5]

Apollohn goes on to say that he reserves the power of oracle to himself:

"I am pledged and have vowed and sworn a strong oath that no other of the eternal Gods save I should know the wise-hearted counsel of Zeus." [5]

Apollohn will use his power to both help and deceive mankind:

"As for men, I will harm one and profit another, sorely perplexing the tribes of unenviable men." [5]

Why would Apollohn "harm one and profit another," as the hymn states? Because Apollohn distinguishes between the mortals who choose to live in justice and those who choose to live in injustice, and he keeps them separate. This is explained more thoroughly below in the explanatory comments to the Orphic Hymn to Apollohn.

Apollohn is the only Olympic God whose name was retained in the Roman pantheon. In Rome he was worshiped primarily as the God of healing.

There is no place on earth more famous than Sparta (Gr. Σπάρτα) for their great love of Apollohn, with glorious festivals in his honor such as the Karneia and the Yakinthia (Hyacinthia; Gr. Ὑακίνθια).

There are numerous stories about Apollohn. You can find the most famous of them summarized here: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

The Meaning of the Name of Apollohn

There are various opinions concerning the etymology of the name Apollohn. For instance, in Kratylus (Cratylus; Gr. Κρατύλος) lines 405 b-d of Platohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων), Sohkratis (Socrates; Gr. Σωκράτης) suggests several etymologies: Apolouohn (Gr. ἀπολούων) "purifier", Apolyohn (Gr. ἀπολύων) "he who delivers from impurity," Aplos from Aploun (Gr. Ἄπλουν) "simple, sincere" and with regard to his oracular ability, and aæi Ballohn (Gr. ἀεὶ βάλλων) "always or ever-shooting" in reference to his skill at archery. Sohkratis points out that the letter Alpha at the beginning of the name signifies harmony, both harmony in music and the concordance in Gods and men. All of these words shed light on Apollohn, but this author has been taught that the primary etymology is derived from the Greek verb apollymi (Gr. απολλυμι) "to destroy," an opinion that Sohkratis would seem to disagree with, most likely because he did not like ideas that had the potential to mislead people about the Gods. Nonetheless, Destroyer is the most important and fundamental meaning of the name of Apollohn. Because of this association with destruction and some other qualities (such as his relationship to plague), it has been assumed by some that the God has a "dark side," but this is a complete misunderstanding. Apollohn is a destroyer, but what does he destroy? He destroys the darkness of the mind and soul, superstition, spiritual stagnation, the ythra (hydra; Gr. ὕδρα) of egotism, slavery, and injustice, and everything that obscures the Natural Laws. He destroys all the impediments to enlightenment. It is evident in his epithets: Phivos (Phoebus; Gr. Φοίβος) meaning "the bright one," or Phohsphoros (Phosphoros; Gr. Φωσφόρος) meaning "light-bearer," or Lykeios (Gr. Λύκειος) from lykhnos (Gr. λύχνος) meaning "light" or "lamp." Apollohn is the great boundless God of light. He is enlightenment itself. There is nothing dark in him. Within the verb apollymi is the root ly (Gr. λυ) meaning "light": "He who destroys with light." The idea that any divine being has a dark side, whether we speak of Apollohn, Ækati (Hekate; Gr. Ἑκάτη), or any God, is completely illogical because they are all beings of light and complete goodness.

Apollohn is the principle God of deification and this is indicated in yet another meaning of the word apollymi: "I lose myself." The entangling ythra (hydra; Gr. ὕδρα) of ego has been destroyed, therefore "I lose myself" and unite with the Gods in immeasurable freedom. You are no longer what you were, "I lose myself." The circle is complete: you shall no longer return as a mortal being.

Apollohn in Iconography
In iconography Apollohn is portrayed as a youth [6] of consummate beauty. His body exhibits perfect proportions, neither soft nor overly muscular. "And he is beautiful, and eternally young. Cheeks not even shadowed by down, his fragrant hair sheds essence to earth, no pomade for Apollo, but pure Panacea (ed. Panakeia; Gr. Πανάκεια), a distillation to immunize cities wherever it falls." [7] He often carries a kithara (cithara = lyre; Gr. κιθάρα), or a bow and arrows, or sometimes a sword. Frequently Apollohn is accompanied by the Mousai (ed. Muses; Gr. Μοῦσαι). The head of Apollohn is adorned with long blond hair and is typically crowned with laurel. His eyes are green. Sometimes he is shown holding a branch of myrtle, emblematic of prophecy, or an apple, the prize of the Pythian Games (ed. from whence we get the title Pythian Apollohn, Pythios [Gr. Πύθιος]. The area around Dælphi is called Pythoh [Pytho; Gr. Πυθώ]). He is often accompanied by a raven, sacred to him, or the Lykos (Gr. Λύκος), the wolf, a symbol of the power of Apollohn. The wolf is known as the Æöhsphoros (Eosphoros or Eosforos; Gr. Εωσφόρος), the herald of the Dawn or the Light of the Dawn because wolves are usually seen at the break of dawn.

"The character under which this God is represented, is often suggested by the taste and caprice of the sculptor or the poet. He appears at Lesbos (ed. Læsvos; Gr. Λέσβος) holding a branch of myrtle, a tree considered by the ancients to be emblematical of divination: sometimes he holds an apple, the prize at the Pythian games. At Delos (ed. Dilos; Gr. Δήλος), he has a bow in his right hand, and in his left the three Graces (ed. The Kharitæs = Charities; Gr. Χάριτες), each of them bearing an instrument of music, the lyre, the flute, and the syrinx (Gr. Συριγξ). As the sun, he has a cock on his hand, is crowned with rays, and traverses the zodiac (ed. Zohthiakos; Gr. ζῳδιᾰκός) in a car, drawn by four white horses, to which the names, Philogæus, Erythræus, Ethon, Actæon, and Pyrois, are variously given. At other times, he appears upon Parnassus (ed. Mt. Parnassos; Gr. Παρνασσός), surrounded by the Muses (Mousai), with his lyre in his hand, and a wreath of laurel on his head. The Persians, who confounded Apollo with the sun, represent him with the head of a lion and human features, surmounted by a tiara, and holding by the horns an infuriated bull, an emblem of Egyptian origin. The Egyptians, who identify him with Orus (ed. an antique way of spelling Horus), represent him as an infant, swathed in variegated clothes, holding in one hand a staff, which terminates in the head of a hawk, and in the other a whip with three thongs; but he is most generally represented as tall, beardless, in the beauty and vigour of youth, with flowing locks, holding in his hand a bow, and sometimes a lyre (ed. Kithara = cithara; Gr. κιθάρα), his head being crowned with laurel, and surrounded with beams of light. In the temple of Assyrian Juno (ed. Ira; Gr. Ἥρη) at Hierapolis (ed. Iærapolis; Gr. Ἱεράπολις), he is seen, near the throne of the sun, as an old man with a long beard. The statue of the God which has acquired the greatest celebrity, is that of Apollo Belvidere, which represents him at the moment of having discharged the arrow from his bow. Homer (ed. Omiros; Gr. Ὅμηρος), and the most ancient mythologists, considered the sun and Apollo as two distinct divinities; whereas Plato (ed. Platohn; Gr. Πλάτων), Cicero, and the Greeks, generally identified them. Upon antique monuments and coins they are almost invariably distinguished from each other; and more recent inquiries into this part of mythology tend to confirm the propriety of the distinction, ..." [8]

Birthday of Apollohn and the Number Seven:
Apollohn's birthday is celebrated on the seventh of Thargiliohn (Thargelion; Gr. Θαργηλιών; which our community always celebrates on May 21). Because of this, Apollohn is known by the epithet Ævthomagænis (Ebdomagenes or Hebdomagenes, Gr. Ἑβδομᾱγενής), meaning born on the seventh day. [9] All seventh days are, therefore, sacred to Apollohn [10], hence, the connection between Apollohn and the number seven.
For another interpretation of why the number seven is connected with Apollohn we find this explanation of Proklos (Proclus; Gr. Πρόκλος):

"For he (ed. the Dimiourgos = Demiurge; Gr. Δημιουργός) divides the soul into parts, harmonizes the divided parts, and renders them concordant with each other. But in effecting these things, he energizes at one and the same time Dionysiacally [i.e. Bacchically] and Apolloniacally. For to divide, and produce wholes into parts, and to preside over the distribution of forms, is Dionysiacal; but to perfect all things harmonically, is Apolloniacal. As the Demiurgus, therefore, comprehends in himself the cause of both these Gods, he both divides and harmonizes the soul. For the hebdomad (ed. ævthomas = seven; Gr. ἑβδομάς) is a number common to both these divinities, since theologists (Orphic) also say that Bacchus (ed. Vakkhos; Gr. Βἀκχος) was divided into seven parts:

Into seven parts the Titans cut the boy.

And they refer the heptad (ed. group of seven) to Apollo, as containing all symphonies. For the duple diapason (ed. a rich outpouring of harmonious song) first subsists in the monad (ed. one = monath; Gr. μοναδ), duad (ed. two = dyas; Gr. δυάς), and tetrad (ed. four = tætras; Gr. τετράς), of which numbers the hebdomad (ed. seven = ævthomas; Gr. ἑβδομάς) consists. Hence they call the God Hebdomagetes (ed. Ævthomagænis = Ebdomagenes; Gr. Ἑβδομᾱγενής), or born on the seventh day, and assert that this day is sacred to him." [11]

The Fumigation from Manna [21].
Blest Pæan, come, propitious to my pray'r,
Illustrious pow'r, whom Memphian tribes revere,
Slayer of Tityus, and the God of health,
Lycorian Phœbus, fruitful source of wealth.
Spermatic, golden-lyr'd, the field from thee 5
Receives it's constant, rich fertility.
Titanic, Grunian, Smynthian, thee I sing,
Python-destroying, hallow'd, Delphian king:
Rural, light-bearer, and the Muse's head,
Noble and lovely, arm'd with arrows dread: 10
Far-darting, Bacchian, two-fold, and divine,
Pow'r far diffused, and course oblique is thine.
O, Delian king, whose light-producing eye
Views all within, and all beneath the sky:
Whose locks are gold, whose oracles are sure, 15
Who, omens good reveal'st, and precepts pure:
Hear me entreating for the human kind,
Hear, and be present with benignant mind;
For thou survey'st this boundless Æther all,
And ev'ry part of this terrestrial ball. 20
Abundant, blessed; and thy piercing sight,
Extends beneath the gloomy, silent night;
Beyond the darkness, starry-ey'd, profound,
The stable roots, deep fix'd by thee are found.
The world's wide bounds, all-flourishing are thine, 25
Thyself all the source and end divine:
'Tis thine all Nature's music to inspire,
With various-sounding, harmonising lyre;
Now the last string thou tun'st to sweet accord,
Divinely warbling now the highest chord; 30
Th' immortal golden lyre, now touch'd by thee,
Responsive yields a Dorian melody.
All Nature's tribes to thee their diff'rence owe,
And changing seasons from thy music flow:
Hence, mix'd by thee in equal parts, advance 35
Summer and Winter in alternate dance;
This claims the highest, that the lowest string,
The Dorian measure tunes the lovely spring.
Hence by mankind, Pan-royal, two-horn'd nam'd,
Emitting whistling winds thro' Syrinx fam'd; 40
Since to thy care, the figur'd seal's consign'd,
Which stamps the world with forms of ev'ry kind.
Hear me, blest pow'r, and in these rites rejoice,
And save thy mystics with a suppliant voice.

In the Orphic hymn to Apollohn, there is a reference to Mæmphis (Memphis; Gr. Μέμφις) at the beginning of the poem:

"A giver of riches are you and an illustrious dweller of Memphis" (trans. Athanassakis) [12]

or in another translation:

"Illustrious pow'r, whom Memphian tribes revere" [13]

The ancient Hellenic word is Mæmphitha (Gr. Μέμφιδα), in the context of this sentence, Memphit (Gr. Μεμφῖτ). The translation 'Memphis,' as in the Egyptian city of Memphis, is correct, but there is likely a hidden meaning intended. The idea is that Apollo is the Lord of Memphis, the name of the city being a play on the word mneme or mnimi [14] (Gr. μνήμη) or mnemico or mnemisco, the same root used in the name of the Goddess Mnimosyni (Mnemosyne; Gr. Μνημοσύνη), meaning memory. So, from this interpretation, the Lord of Memphis is the Lord of Memory.
Some terms and interpretations of parts of the hymn:

Apollohn is called the slayer of Tityos (Gr. Τιτυός), a giant who assaulted his mother Litoh (Leto; Gr. Λητώ) or his sister Artæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις).

Lykohrefs (Lycoreus or Lykoreus; Gr. Λυκωρεύς) refers to the south slope of Parnassus above Dælphi (Delphi; Gr. Δελφοί).

Gryneios (Grynean; Gr. Gr. Γρύνειος) is an epithet that refers to the city of Gryneion (Gr. Γρύνιον), the seat of an oracle to Apollohn and where stood a beautiful white marble temple to the God.

Sminthefs (Sminthian or Smintheus; Gr. Σμινθεύς) The meaning of this epithet is uncertain. It derives most likely from sminthos (Gr. σμίνθος), "mouse," the mouse being somehow associated with prophetic power, inspired by vapors arising from the earth; this association with the mouse is likely because there are representations of Apollohn with a mouse. It is also possible that the God had been believed to have the ability to save from infestation by mice. Another possibility is that the epithet is derived from the name Sminthi (Gr. Σμίνθη) a town in the Troad (Gr. Τρωάς, i.e. the Turkish peninsula).

Dithymefs (Didymeus or Didymæus; Gr. Gr. Διδυμεύς) Dithymefs is an epithet referring to the town of Dithyma (Didyma; Gr. Δίδυμα) where an oracle of Apollohn resided. Yet another interpretation of the word, a surname of Apollohn, so named from the double light imparted by him to mankind; the one directly and immediately from his own body; the other by reflection from the moon. [15]

Loxias (Gr. Λοξίας) is a surname of Apollohn which refers to the God as the prophet and interpreter of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς). [16]

There is a reference to summer and winter being equal in length (line 21). It is thought by some scholars that this a reference to when the poem was written: a 500 year period which occurs every 10,000 years, dating the poem quite early indeed, in the Golden Age of the Heroes.

There is one very unfortunate translation that must be noted. Mr. Athanassakis translates line 19 as follows:

"balancing the poles harmoniously, as you keep the living races distinct" [17]

The Taylor is only somewhat better but again misses the point of this line of the hymn:

"All Nature's tribes to thee their diff'rence owe" [18]

Both of these translations are misleading and incomplete; they could be interpreted as condoning racism, which is entirely not the case. [19] This sentence is actually one of the most important in the entire hymn because it refers to Apollohn as the administrator of the justice of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς). The actual Greek is...

κρἰνεις βιοθρἐμμονα φῦλα

krineis viothræmmona phyla

...which means, "you judge the races of mortals" or "you separate the races of mortals by your judgment." Krinoh (κρίνω) means "judge," [20] and in this context, krinoh refers to a judgment concerning ethics. Therefore, the interpretation is that Apollohn makes a distinction or separation by justice, not by race. Apollohn distinguishes between the mortals who choose to live in justice and those who choose to live in injustice, and he keeps them separate.

Perhaps a better translation would be:

"balancing the poles harmoniously, as you separate the races of mortals by your judgment."


[1] Symparæthros to Zefs for this and other reasons: "Now Jupiter (ed. = Zefs = Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) in the Orphic theology, is the Demiurgus (ed. Demiurge or Dimiourgos; Gr. Δημιουργός) of the universe, or the first intellect; and Apollo, in the intellectual world, is the same with Jupiter (ed. Zefs)..." (This statement is found in the notes to the hymn to Pan, HO p. 130. HO = The Hymns of Orpheus, translated by Thomas Taylor, 1792.

[2] Plathohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων) Apologia (Gr. Ἀπολογία) 21b, trans. Thomas Taylor in 1804, found here in Vol. IV of The Works of Plato which is Vol. XII of the Thomas Taylor Series, Prometheus Trust (Somerset UK), 1996 edition, p. 189.

[3] Omiros (Homer; Gr. Ὅμηρος) Ilias (Iliad; Gr. Ἰλιάς) viii.250. HIM1 p. 369. HIM1 = Homer Iliad I: Books 1-12 trans. A. T. Murray, Revised by William F. Wyatt, 1924. We are using the 1999 edition published by Harvard University Press (Cambridge MA USA and London England), Loeb Classical Library LCL 170.

[4] Aiskhylos (Aeschylus; Gr. Αἰσχύλος) Efmænithæs 1-19 (Eumenides; Gr. Εὐμενίδες) CGT1 p. 135, trans. by Richard Lattimore, 1953. CGT1 = The Complete Greek Tragedies Vol. 1: Aeschylus, translated by various authors. Published by the University of Chicago Press (Chicago IL USA) 1959, the individual plays have various original copyright dates.

[5] Homeric hymn to Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) To the Son of Kronos Most High, trans. Hugh Evelyn-White, 1914; found here in the 1936 Heinemann [London]/Harvard [Cambridge, Mass.] edition, Loeb Vol. 57, Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns, and Homerica, p. 449.

[6] "Pythagoras (ed. Gr. Πυθαγόρας) pointed out that boys were most dear to the divinities; and he pointed out that, in times of great drought, cities would send boys as ambassadors to implore rain from the Gods, in the persuasion that divinity is especially attentive to children.....That is also the reason why the most philanthropic of the Gods, Apollo and Love (ed. better not to translate this word: Eros or Ærohs; Gr. Ἔρως), are, in pictures, universally represented as having the ages of boys." (The words of Iamvlikhos [Iamblichus; Gr. Ἰάμβλιχος] from The Life of Pythagoras, translated in 1818 by Thomas Taylor, edited for readability by Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie in The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library, 1988 edition, p. 68)

[7] Kallimakhos' Hymn II: To Apollohn, lines 44-48, translated by Stanley Lombardo and Diane Rayor, 1988; Callimachus: Hymns, Epigrams, Select Fragments, The Johns Hopkins University Press (Baltimore MD USA and London England), p. 8.

[8] CM* p. 19. CM = A Classical Manual, Being a Mythological, Historical, and Geographical Commentary on Pope's Homer, and Dryden's Æneid of Virgil, 1833; London: John Murray, Albemarle St. This vast, very old, and quite amazing reference book does not list an author.

[9] L&S, p. 466, right column.

[10] CM* p. 22 under Hebdomagenes.

[11] Proklos' Commentary on the Timaios of Platohn, Diehl pagination: 200C-D, 2,197-198; trans. Thomas Taylor, 1820; found here in the 2006 Prometheus Trust edition, Vol. II of the book entitled Proclus' Commentary on the Timaeus of Plato, Thomas Taylor Series Vol. XVI, on p. 616.

[12] Orphic Hymn 34. To Apollohn, line 2; OH p. 47. OH = The Orphic Hymns, translated by Apostolos N. Athanassakis, 1977 by Scholars Press for The Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta GA USA; we are using the 1988 reprint.

[13] The Hymns of Orpheus, XXXIII. To Apollo, line 2, HO p. 161. HO = The Hymns of Orpheus, translated by Thomas Taylor, 1792, London England, printed for the author.

[14] L&S p. 1139 left column: remembrance, memory.

[15] CM* p. 21 under Didymeus.

[16] Source: DGRBM Vol. 1, p. 807. DGRBM = A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology in three volumes, edited by William Smith, 1880; original 1880 edition by John Murray. We are using the 2007 I.B Tauris edition (London, England & New York, USA).

[17] Orphic Hymn 34. To Apollohn, line 19, OH p. 49.

[18] Orphic Hymn 34. To Apollohn, line 19, HO p. 164.

[19] "There is one race of men, one race of Gods; and from one mother do we both derive our breath." Pindar Nemean 6, For Alcimidas of Aegina, line number 1, translated by Sir J. E. Sandys, 1915. PI p. 369. PI = The Odes of Pindar Including the Principal Fragments translated by Sir John Sandys, 1915. We are using the 1968 edition published by William Heinemann LTD (London England) and Harvard Univ. Press (Cambridge MA USA), Loeb Classical Library Series Vol. 56.

[20] condensed from example 4 of L&S p. 996, left column:

κρίνω [ῑ], Ep. 3sg. ind. κρίνησι (δια-) f.l. in Theoc.25.46: fut. κρῐνῶ, Ep., Ion. κρῐνέω (δια-) Il.2.387: aor.

—separate, put asunder, distinguish,.
II. pick out, choose, .
2. decide disputes.
b. decide a contest.
c. win a battle.
3. adjudge, the sum adjudged to be paid.
b. abs., judge, give judgement.
c. Medic., bring to a crisis, :—Pass., of a sick person, come to a crisis.
4. judge of, estimate.
5. expound, interpret in a particular way.
6. c. acc. et inf., decide or judge that . . .
7. decide in favour of, prefer, choose; choose between.
8. c.inf.only, determine to do a thing,.
9. form a judgement of a thing.
III. in Trag., question.
2. bring to trial, accuse.
3. pass sentence upon, condemn.
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Compiled by Kallimakhos

"O Best of Gods, blest daimon crown'd with fire . . . hear, and from punishment my soul absolve, the punishment incurr'd by pristine guilt, thro' Lethe's darkness and terrene desire: and if for long-extended years I'm doom'd in these drear realms Heav'n's exile to remain, O grant me soon the necessary means to gain that good which solitude confers on souls emerging from the bitter waves of fraudful Hyle's black, impetuous flood!"
-Iulianic Hymn to Apollon-Helios, ll. 65-106

"Having come for punishment, one must be punished. One must not pull apart the god within oneself."
-Iamblichus, Vita Pythagorica

"Truth would you teach, or save a sinking land,
All hear, none aid you, and few understand."
-Alexander Pope


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